What defines us as a human? To answer this question is not easy. We can move, consider, speak, and create various things. But, are not we humans if we cannot do them? Definitely, yes. We were born as a human and will die as a human.
There are some ways to clarify the abilities unique in human. One famous method is Turing test. It was developed by Alan Turning in 1950 for distinguishing intelligent machines from those without intelligence. The evaluator listens to a series of conversation between a human and an AI program. Then, when the evaluator cannot detect which is the human, the AI is deemed as intelligent.
In 2014, a Russian supercomputer passed the Turing test. Thus, over 30% of the human evaluators had failed to identify the machine as it is. It is an amazing result. The AI might mimic a human completely.
By the way, can robots acquire consciousness? It is more difficult question than Turing test. Intelligence is measurable, at least to some extent. There are many examination packages for evaluating the intelligence of the examinees. It is said that some kind of monkeys gets a score as well as a human toddler in these tests.
On the other hand, consciousness cannot be measurable. In an emergent situation, patients often lose their consciousness due to some physical trouble. But the disturbance of consciousness is not limited to the status of deep coma. Drowsiness, drunken state, and also dissociative state can be considered as crippled consciousness. Examining the level of consciousness precisely is often difficult for trained physicians.
Furthermore, an identity of each person is a more complex concept of mind. It is almost impossible for an AI to acquire an identity of itself.
Gender identity is one of the examples suggesting the difficulty of understanding the concept of identity. There are some people whose gender identity does not match their biological sex. Some of them are diagnosed with gender identity disorder. And others are proud of their own identity in spite of its inconsistency.
Recently, sex robots are sometimes focused, both on the light side and the dark side. There are some people loving robots. Also, some people need a robot partner.
However, is it possible to create a sex robot with transgender? The author says definitely not because gender is a concept of mentality.
International Business Times: Sex robots can't be transgender - this is why
Superficially, I agree with this idea. But, some researchers believe robots will acquire their own consciousness. If it is realized, there may be some robots with transgender identity. I cannot imagine how they look like, if possible. The future may be beyond our imagination.