A recent study in which the level of happiness of the citizens was evaluated is focused.
This study was conducted in Canada. The researchers ranked more than 1,200 communities by the subjective happiness level from the 400,000 answers of citizens. Surprisingly, the result suggests population density is negatively associated with the average of happiness level.
The Washington Post: People who live in small towns and rural areas are happier than everyone else, researchers say
Thus, citizens living in a rural area are likely to be happier than those in an urban area.
I have seen a similar result of another study the other day. It is suspected that short commute time and the vast space for each citizen are keys to happiness.
In addition, the sense of belonging is essential to maintain the level of satisfaction for everyone. As a result, the level of happiness in the area where there are many immigrants is likely to be relatively low. It does not mean, however, immigrants cannot be happy.
Also in Japan, some people who moved from Tokyo to a rural area say that they become happy. Actually, the life in Tokyo is very convenient and stimulative, but exhausting and costly.
Of course, this result cannot be easily generalized. Happiness is a subjective, and relative sense. If you meet a person who looks happier than you, you may feel unhappy. The happiness level of Butanians was decreased after they get touch with Western culture.
On the other hand, you feel happy when you expect tomorrow will be better than today. In this sense, citizens in a developing country may feel happier than those in a developed country, even though their life is tougher.